After women got involved in politics by petitioning Indian removal they realized they could, and should, get involved in politics. The ‘separate spheres’ of sexes idea was in place at the time, which meant women should stay out of the public life. The next movement saw a more active role for women, like Angelina and Sarah Grimke, speaking out against slavery. In the process of this movement they realized their rights to speak were under attack and began fighting for equal rights for women based on their interpretation of scripture. Christianity takes center stage in the debate, existing as the field of battle amongst the three sides; pro-women’s rights/ pro-abolition, pro-abolition / anti-women’s rights (at least until slavery is taken care of), and anti-both. This paper will discuss the role of Christianity in the debate of women’s rights - pro, con, and in between - and how it plays into the relation between the abolitionist movement, the Grimke sisters, and the women’s movement.Read More
"Manners make the man; that is, they make his fortune (Household Words 296)."
Self-sacrifice, in Victorian England, was a virtue of the utmost importance. This was a time when modesty and manners reigned supreme, but also a time of a child boom, so what was virtuous for a man to do in this era? One thing for sure is to sacrifice for the betterment of all. This idea was ingrained into the realms of economics, politics, nation building, sexuality, and of course - morality. In Jude the Obscure, Thomas Hardy uses the popular ideas of a virtuous man and turns them on their head for the sake of showing what ends society's 'virtue' and 'morality' ultimately lead to. Hardy, unlike Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus, makes love and passion worthy ideals to sacrifice for.Read More
There were a lot of ideologies present in the debate upon Cherokee removal in the early 19th century in America. The main focus of power rests in the hands of nations in this debate but the role of religion is extremely significant. The stance Christianity takes is an impetus for action; originally, by the Americans that becomes a justification for the Cherokees. Late in the removal debate, before the act itself, Christianity becomes less important and policy and legality become the shining stars for the Americans to act upon. I will discuss the influence of Christianity on the debate of Indian Removal, from the Civilization program to the defense and support of Andrew Jackson and Indian removal as an Act in 1830, as well as, the decline in Christian ideas in support of removal.Read More
Robert Nozick conceives of a "Dominant Protection Association" (DPA) model that would arise from the Lockean state of nature through an "invisible hand" model, meaning not designed but organic. He claims that this "invisible hand" model would violate no ones rights because no one would be in charge of it (like natural disasters aren't violating rights). This would be a natural progression from nature in the attempt to gather into society for protection, but is this protection agency enough or do we need more? Nozick agrees with more, he wants to get to the minimal state which has a monopoly on the use of force. I think a different approach is the model that would work the best - the model of the naturally constructed democratic DPA which Nozick doesn't offer.Read More
A shift in the history of science narrative to an idea that secret knowledge had a much more dominant role to play is a positive shift in reasoning to better understand science in the medieval and early modern European history. Historians have overlooked the secret knowledge and passed it off as unimportant to the history that was to lead to modern science. Alchemy and mysticism, magic and even astrology are cultures that were overlooked at first by modern historians, and now rediscovered as major players in the history of science and technological development in our past, much like the 'secrets of nature' genre of books were. The way I define the statement 'secret knowledge' is this; The learned peoples secrets of the trade, such as, craftsman's secrets not being shared with the public for reasons of keeping demand for yourself high or scholars knowledge kept from the masses by way of keeping it written in Latin, so as to keep the illiterate from reading it and desecrating this traditional knowledge passed down through the generations. I will argue that science as secret knowledge is a justified narrative for the history of science based on its necessity of the 'secrets' books to have flourished in the age of the printing press causing a push for more practical science.Read More